irrigation, 2.3 Requirements for optimal Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. The designs of these structures have been standardized since they are small in size and capacity. The stream size per unit width must be large, particularly following a major tillage operation, although not so large for basins owing to the effects of slope. This is not to say, however, that furrow irrigation enjoys higher application efficiencies than borders and basins. Border irrigation can be viewed as an extension of basin irrigation to sloping, long rectangular or contoured field shapes, with free draining conditions at the lower end. Similarly, the irrigation works themselves are better constructed because of the application of high technology equipment. In this configuration, the head ditch is divided into a series of level bays which are differentiated by a small change in elevation. Figure 6. Figure 11. If there is long duration between two rotations, there is likelihood of water stress resulting in wilting point during the recession stage. Issues associated with surface irrigation. Surface water and groundwater monitoring and reporting programs are also likely to … For the complete system to work well, each must work conjunctively toward the common goal of promoting maximum on-farm production. As noted previously, there are two features that distinguish a surface irrigation system: (a) the flow has a free surface responding to the gravitational gradient; and (b) the on-field means of conveyance and distribution is the field surface itself. In: Annual Report 1988, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. The gated pipe may be connected to the main water supply via a piped distribution network with a riser assembly like the one shown in Figure 13, directly to a canal turnout, or through an open channel to a piped transition. These are: 1) The water supply subsystem 2) The water delivery subsystem 3) The water use subsystem Conveying water to the field requires similar structures to those found in major canal networks. DESIGN OF SURFACE IRRIGATION, LECTURE SUPPORTING MATERIALS 2 purpose of the physical system is to supply water to an area for crop production. A very large number of causes of poor surface irrigation performance have been outlined in the technical literature. These systems are commonly used in Australia where rice and wheat are grown in rotation.[2]. The process of surface irrigation can be said to include four phases: advance phase; storage phase; depletion phase; and recession phase. The changes in the lesser-developed and developing countries are less dramatic. There is substantial field evidence that surface irrigation systems can apply water to croplands uniformly and efficiently, but it is the general observation that most such systems operate well below their potential. Automation is easily applied. 2. 2.1 Introduction Land preparation is largely a land grading problem which will be discussed in Section 5. Head ditch outlets for borders and basins (after Kraatz and Mahajan, FAO, 1975). A volume balance approach to determine the parameters of the Kostiakov or modified Kostiakov infiltration equations in border and furrow irrigation is presented. It is possible to improve the performance of most surface . In those cases where high levels of uniformity and efficiency are being achieved, irrigators utilize one or more of the following practices: (1) precise and careful field preparation; (2) irrigation scheduling; (3) regulation of inflow discharges; and (4) tailwater runoff restrictions, reduction, or reuse. Surface irrigation involves movement of water as shallow flow over planes or in channels. It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years. Designs for flow measurement and drop-energy dissipator structures need more attention and construction must be more precise since their hydraulic responses are quite sensitive to their dimensions. Even today it is often more economical to regulate the inflow rather than to collect and pump the runoff back to the head of the field or to another field, tailwater reuse systems are more cost-effective when the water can be added to the flow serving lower fields and thereby saving the cost of pumping. A surface irrigation event is composed of four phases as illustrated graphically in Figure 1. Here, we will not detail out sub surface irrigation methods. Under border check irrigation, water will directly wet the entire surface as the whole bay area is designed as the flow path. Furrows provide the irrigator more opportunity to manage irrigations toward higher efficiencies as field conditions change for each irrigation throughout a season. Figure 3. Some irrigation water is supplied in piped delivery systems and some directly pumped from groundwater. Surge Irrigation is a variant of furrow irrigation where the water supply is pulsed on and off in planned time periods (e.g. A surface irrigation event composes of the four phases outlined below (Walker, 1989) and illustrated graphically in Figure 2. The recession phase describes the time period while the water front is retreating towards the downstream end of the field. Throughout the world, this is the most commonly used type of irrigation process. This results in poor uniformity with high application at the top end with lower application at the bottom end. There are three types of Surface Irrigation: Level Basin Irrigation, furrow irrigation, and Border Strip Irrigation. In reality, some of the irrigation practices grouped under this name involve a significant degree of management (for example surge irrigation). 18 - 34 . Figure 4 illustrates a typical border configuration in which a field is divided into sloping borders. When water is applied to the field, it 'advances' across the surface until the water extends over the entire area. The storage or ponding phase 3 1.2.3. As water is applied to the top end of the field it will flow or advance over the field length. For example, a basin or border system may be furrowed. At about the same time, researchers like Strelkoff and Katapodes (1977) made major contributions with efficient and accurate numerical solutions to these equations. Chapter 4 Surface Irrigation Part 623 NationalEngineeringHandbook (210–VI–NEH, September 2012) 4–v Figures Figure 4–1 Layout and function of irrigation system components 4–2 Figure 4–2 Basic phases of a surface irrigation event 4–3 Figure 4–3 Typical basin irrigation system in the Western United States 4… Thus, the system operates by moving the check-dam from bay to bay along the upper end of the field. The water is applied to the top end of the bay, which is usually constructed to facilitate free-flowing conditions at the downstream end. Before selecting surface irrigation over other types of irrigations, one must investigate the advantages and disadvantages of surface irrigation. Implementing management practices to control the discharge of irrigation water, tile drain water, stormwater, nutrients, pesticides, and sediments will continue to be important for all growers. Time is cumulative since the beginning of the irrigation, distance is referenced to the point water enters the field. It may be furrowed or corrugated, have raised beds for the benefit of certain crops, but as long as the inflow is undirected and uncontrolled into these field modifications, it remains a basin. However, this practice increases the tailwater problem because the flow at the downstream end must be maintained until a sufficient depth has infiltrated. Surface irrigation events have 3 phases: advance, storage, and recession. Each should be standardized for mass production and fabrication in the field by farmers and technicians. for optimal performance In the developed and industrialized countries, land holdings have become as much as 10-20 times as large, and the number of farm families has dropped sharply. Diversion structures perform several tasks including (1) on-off water control which allows the supply agency to allocate its supply and protects the fields below the diversion from untimely flooding; (2) regulation and stabilization of the discharge to the requirements of field channels and watercourse distribution systems; (3) measurement of flow at the turnout in order to establish and protect water entitlements; and (4) protection of downstream structures by controlling sediments and debris as well as dissipating excess kinetic energy in the flow. surface waters. for optimal performance, 2.1 Introduction to surface Surface Irrigation Methods • Flooding • Borders • Basins • Furrows. What methods are used? The approach requires measured data from the advance phase, the postadvance (wetting) phase, or both, resulting in three different procedures to characterize infiltration. It may or may not directly wet the entire surface, but all of the flow paths have been completed. Furrow irrigation is particularly suited to broad-acre row crops such as cotton, maize and sugar cane. Water may be supplied using gated pipe, siphon and head ditch, or bankless systems. Surface irrigation (Figure 12.1) of secondary treated and disinfected effluent is permitted in NSW. Water levels are regulated in two bays simultaneously so that the lower bay has sufficient head to produce an advance phase flow in the furrows while in the upper bay the head is only sufficient to produce the cutback flow. A basin is typically square in shape but exists in all sorts of irregular and rectangular configurations. The higher inflow reaches the end of the field sooner but it increases both the duration and the magnitude of the runoff. What is surface irrigation in Iraq like today? The evaluation methods can be applied if desired, but the design techniques are not generally applicable nor need they be since the irrigation practices tend to be minimally managed. The infiltration rates are an unknown variable in irrigation practice. Some of the more common flow control structures for open channels are shown in Figure 10. The discharge per unit width of the field is substantially reduced and topographical variations can be more severe. The distinctive feature of furrow irrigation is that the flow into each furrow is independently set and controlled as opposed to furrowed borders and basins where the flow is set and controlled on a border by border or basin by basin basis. During advance, the water moves down the channel. There are few crops and soils not amenable to basin irrigation, but it is generally favoured by moderate to slow intake soils, deep-rooted and closely spaced crops. The process of surface irrigation can be described using four phases. Is the water supply mainly from canals? In this guide, surface methods are classified by the slope, the size and shape of the field, the end conditions, and how water flows into and over the field. Surface irrigation methods are the oldest, and are those that use the soil surface to conduct and infiltrate the applied water. 2.4 Surface irrigation To minimize deep percolation the advance phase should be completed as quickly as possible so that the intake opportunity time over the field will be uniform and then cut the inflow off when enough water has been added to refill the root zone. Surface Irrigation is a kind of irrigation where gravity works its best. 2.4.2 However, surface irrigation has limitations because it increases the chance of human contact with the effluent. Typical irrigated basins (from Walker and Skogerboe, 1987). The advance phase refers to that length of time as water is applied to the top end of the field and flows or advances over the field length. The depletion phase 4 1.2.4. 2.2.4 Uncontrolled flooding. Examples of these alternative practices are discussed and illustrated in Section 5. This can be accomplished with a high, but non-erosive, discharge onto the field. 2.2 Surface irrigation methods Typical turnout from a canal or lateral (from walker end Skogerboe, 1987). The surface irrigation system is one component of a much larger network of facilities diverting and delivering water to farmlands. Many basins are so small that precision equipment cannot work effectively. 2.2.3 Furrow irrigation Figure 7. One common use of this technique includes the irrigation of pasture for dairy production. Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. How much groundwater pumping is used? A typical turnout structure is shown in Figure 7. 1.2. Historically, the elements of an irrigation system have not functioned well as a system and the result has too often been very low project irrigation efficiencies. Irrigation scheduling is a theme covered separately by several publications such as the FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24 (Rev) by Doorenbos and Pruitt (FAO, 1977). Crops which are sensitive to flooding and soils which form a hard crust following an irrigation can be basin irrigated by adding furrowing or using raised bed planting. After the water reaches the end of the field it will either run-off or start to pond. There are many cases where croplands are irrigated without regard to efficiency or uniformity. However, in looking for a root cause, one most often retreats to the fact that infiltration changes a great deal from irrigation to irrigation, from soil to soil, and is neither predictable nor effectively manageable. Today in the graduate and undergraduate study of surface irrigation engineering, microcomputer and programmable calculator utilization is, or should be, common practice. The WinSRFR program, Common surface irrigation systems used are rill irrigation, furrow or border irrigation. Microcomputers and programmable calculators provide several features for today's irrigation engineers and technicians. When an irrigation project has been designed for either small basins or furrows and borders, the capacity of control and outlet structures may not be large enough to improve basins. The movement of soil water curve . 2.2.1 Basin irrigation How large are the fields? In traditional basins no water is permitted to drain from the field once it is irrigated. Basins can be served with less command area and field watercourses than can border and furrow systems because their level nature allows water applications from anywhere along the basin perimeter. Conveyance, distribution and management structures Surface Irrigation. performance, 2.3.2 Wastewater recovery The incidence of surface irrigation process consists of four phases, as illustrated in Figure 7 below. Very large mechanized farming equipment has replaced animal-powered planting, cultivating and harvesting operations. In most cases the performance of furrow irrigation can be improved through increasing the speed at which water moves along the field (the advance rate). Opportunities for Improving Irrigation Efficiency and Uniformity– 1. The most common piped method of furrow irrigation uses plastic or aluminium gated pipe like that shown in Figure 14. The focus of surface irrigation engineering is at the water use level, the individual irrigated field. 2.1.1 Definition. After the water reaches the field ready to be irrigated, it is distributed onto the field by a variety of means, both simple and elaborately constructed. Surface irrigation is the oldest yet still the most common form of irrigation throughout the world although it traditionally suffers from many problems such as low efficiency and low uniformity. Field distribution and spreading can also be through portable pipelines running along the surfaces or permanent pipelines running underground. Time-space trajectory of water during a surface irrigation showing its advance, wetting, depletion and recession phases. Estimation of the infiltration rate using the infiltrometer method 5 1.3.2. 1967). In furrow systems, the volume of water in the furrow is very often a small part of the total supply for the field and it drains rapidly. Basins and borders usually receive water through buried pipes serving one or more gated risers within each basin or border. Surface irrigation has evolved into an extensive array of configurations which can be broadly classified as: (1) basin irrigation; (2) border irrigation; (3) furrow irrigation; and (4) uncontrolled flooding. The volume of water on the surface begins to decline after the water is no longer being applied. It may be divided into the following four component systems: (1) water supply; (2) water conveyance or delivery; (3) water use; and (4) drainage. The attention here then is focused on inflow regulation and tailwater control. In general, it is more labour intensive than other irrigation methods. Figure 5. It is also practiced in various horticultural industries such as citrus, stone fruit and tomatoes. The Equations describing the hydraulics of surface irrigation are the continuity and momentum equation.These equations are known as the St.Venantequation.In general, the continuity equation expressing the conservation of mass, can be written as: (31.1) The momentum equation expressing the dynamic equilibrium of the flow process is: (31.2) Where, y - Depth of flow (m) t -Time from beginning … In Surface Irrigation, water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by the help of gravity. On-farm water management structures (from Skogerboe Water is applied to the first bay (usually the highest in elevation) and when the desired depth is applied water is permitted to drain back off that bay and flow to the next bay which is at a lower elevation than the first. The advance phase 3 1.2.2. Successful operation of these systems is reliant on a sufficient elevation drop between successive bays. The four phases of surface irrigation 3 1.2.1. 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